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Spices of India

Spices are defined as "a strongly flavored or aromatic substance of vegetable origin, obtained from tropical plants, commonly used as a condiment". In ancient times, spices were as precious as gold; and as significant as medicines, preservatives and perfumes. India - the land of spices plays a significant role in the global spices market. Indian spices are famous all over World. India produces a wide range of spices. At present, production is around 3.2 million tonnes of different spices valued at approximately 4 billion US $, and holds a prominent position in world spice production. Because of the varying climates - from tropical to sub-tropical to temperate-almost all spices grow splendidly in India. In reality almost all the states and union territories of India grow one or the other spices. A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavoring. Spices and herbs are good not only for our taste buds but also for our health. They supply calcium, iron, vitamin B, vitamin C, carotene and other antioxidants. For instance fresh parsley has been linked with cancer prevention due to its antioxidant content and spicy food is much more appealing than a vitamin pill. Besides herbs and spices don't have any kilojoules or fact, so you can eat them to your heart's content.

Red Chilli
Chilli is the dried ripe fruit of the genus Capsicum. Capsicum annuum is an annual sub –shrub, the flowers of which are borne singly and fruits usually pendent, which provide red peppers, cayenne, paprika and chillies and sweet pepper (bell pepper) a mild form with large inflated fruits

Name in international languages

Spanish : Pimenton
French : Puvre de Guinee
German : Paprika
Arabic : Filfil Ahmar
Dutch : Spaanse Peper
Italian : Peperone
Portuguese : Pimento
Russian : Struchkovy pyeret
Japanese : Togarashi
Chinese : Hesiung Yali chiao
Hindi : Lal-Mirch

Asafoetida is extensively used for flavouring curries, sauces, and pickles. It is also used in medicines because of its antibiotic properties.

Foreign Name of Asafoetida

Persian : Angustha-Gandha
French : Ferule Asafoetida
German : Stinkendes steckenkraut
Arabic : Tyib, Haltheeth
Sindhi : Vaghakkyani,Vagharni
Hindi : Hing

Bay Leaf
Bay leaves are used as flavouring in soups, stews, meat, fish, sauces and in confectionaries. Both leaves and fruits possess aromatic, stimulant and narcotic properties. The essential oil from the leaves are also used as spice and food flavouring agent and has wider application in traditional medicines of different countries. The major functional properties are anti-microbial, anti-fungal, hypoglycaemic, anti-ulcerogenic etc.

Foreign Name of Bay Leaf

Spanish : Laurel French : Laurier
German : Lorbeer
Swedish : Lager
Arabic : Ghar
Dutch : Laurier
Italian : Alloro
Portuguese : Loureiro
Russian : Laur
Japanese : Gekkeiju
Chinese : Yuch-kuei

Cambodge is a tropical fruit commonly known as ‘Malabar Tamarind’. The dried rind is used as a condiment for flavouring curries. In Sri Lanka the dried rind with salt is used for curing fish. The rind contains hydroxy citric acid and is widely employed in anti-obesity drugs. It is a native of Western Ghats of Kerala (India). Its habitat extends from Konkan southward to Travancore and into the shola forests of Nilgiris.

Caraway seed
Caraway is widely used as a spice for culinary purposes and for flavouring bread, biscuits, cakes and cheese. It is also used for seasoning sausages and as medicine. Caraway of commerce is the fruit of a biennial herb. The plant has a fleshy root and slender branched stem that attains a height of 0.5 to 0.6 mtrs, with small white flowers in compound umbels. The fruit when ripened splits into narrow elongated carpel, 4 to 6.5mm long, curved, pointed at ends with 5 longitudinal ridges on the surface. The dried fruit is brown in colour has pleasant odour is with sharp taste. Seeds are hard and sharp to touch.

Cardamom is a perennial, herbaceous, rhizomatous plant. Based on the nature of panicles, three varieties are recognized viz. Malabar with prostrate panicle, Mysore with erect panicle, and Vazhukka with semi erect panicle. Plants are of medium size (2 to 3 mtr height) with pubescent leaves (on the dorsal side) and fruits globose in the case of Malabar, whereas plant robust (3 to 4 mtr height) with leaves glabrous on both sides with ovoid capsules in the case of Mysore. Cardamom is used for the preparation of ‘gahwa’ – a strong cardamom coffee concoction which is a symbol for hospitality among Arabs. Apart from this cardamom is widely used as a flavouring material in whole and ground form. In Asia, it can add a lingering sparkle to every kind of dishes both traditional and modern. In Scandinavian countries it is used in baked goods and confectionaries. In Europe and North America it is an ingredient in curry powder and in some sausages products. Cardamom oil and oleoresin has applications in flavouring processed foods, cordials, and liquors and in perfumery and in Ayurvedic medicines. Large Cardamom is cultivated in the Sub-Himalayan region of North Eastern India, Nepal and Bhutan. It is grown in cold humid conditions under shade of trees. Large Cardamom is a perennial herb with subterranean rhizomes and 50-140 aerial leafy shoots. Each shoot has height of 1.7 to 2.6 mtr and possess 9 to 13 leaves in each tiller.

Name in international languages

Spanish : Cardamomo
French : Cardamome
German : Kardamom
Swedish : Kardemumma
Arabic : Hal
Dutch : Kardemom
Italian : Cardamomo
Portuguese : Cardamomo
Russian : Kardamon
Japanese : Karudamon
Chinese : Pai-tou-k'ou

Celery is an aromatic, herbaceous plant grown for its leaves, seeds, oleoresin and essential oil. The dried ripped fruits (celery fruit) are used as spice. Leaves and stalks are used as salads and in soups. It is also widely used in meat seasonings, in flavouring beverages, confectionaries, ice creams and baked goods. It is figured as a natural medicine in different cultures. In modern medicine, it is used as a stimulant and for treating Asthma and liver diseases.

The antiseptic and antibiotic properties of clove oil are used in medicine especially in dentistry, oral and pharyngeal treatments. It has wider applications in preparations of toothpaste and mouthwashes, soaps and perfumes. It is also reported to help diabetics in sugar assimilations.The use of clove in whole or ground form is mainly for culinary purposes and as a flavouring agent in food industry. Its flavour blends well with both sweet and savory dishes. It is highly valued in medicine as carminative, aromatic and stimulant. In Indonesia, the lion share of production is consumed in production of ‘kretek’ cigarettes.

Cumin seed have an aromatic odour and bitter taste. It is used as a condiment, and is an ingredient in curry powders, seasonings of breads, cakes and cheese. It is employed in native dishes of Central and South America. In medicine, it is used as a stimulant, carminative, stomachic and astringent. Cumin seed oil is used in perfumery and for flavouring liqueurs and cordials. Cumin is the dried, white fruit with greyish brown colour of a small slender annual herb. The surface of the fruit has 5 primary ridges, alternatively has 4 less distinct secondary ridges bearing numerous short hairs.

Name in international languages

Spanish : Comino
French : Cumin
German : Romischer Kummel
Swedish : Spiskummin
Arabic : Kammun
Dutch : Komijn
Italian : Comino
Portuguese : Cominho
Russian : Kmin
Chinese : Machin

Dill seed is used both whole and ground as a condiment in soups, salads, processed meats, sausages and pickling. Dill stems and blossom heads are used for dill pickles. The essential oil is used in the manufacture of soaps. Both seeds and oil are used in indigenous medicinal preparations. The emulsion of dill oil in water is an aromatic carminative. Dill is a herbaceous annual with pinnately divided leaves. The ripe, light brown seeds emit an aromatic odour. The leaves have pleasant aromatic odour and warm taste. Both seeds and leaves are valued as spice.

Name in international languages

Spanish : Eneldo
French : Aneth
German : Dill
Swedish : Dill
Arabic : Shibith
Dutch : Dille
Italian : Aneto
Portuguese : Endro
Russian : Ukrop
Chinese : Shin-Lo

Fenugreek is used both as a food and food additive as well as in medicines. Fresh tender pods, leaves and shoots are eaten as curried vegetable. As a spice, it flavours food. Powder of dried leaves is also used for garnishing and flavouring variety of food. Fenugreek extract is used as a flavouring agent of imitation maple syrup. It is one of the principle constituent of curry powder. The seeds are used in colic flatulence, dysentery, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, chronic cough and enlargement of liver and spleen, rickets, gout and diabetes. It is also used as a carminative, tonic, and aphrodisiac. Fenugreek oil is used in the manufacture of hair tonics.

Name in international languages

Spanish : Alholva
French : Fenugrec
German : Bockshorklee
Swedish : Bockshornklee
Arabic : Hulba
Dutch : Fenegriek
Italian : Fieno Greco
Portuguese : Alforva
Russian : Pazhitnik
Japanese : Koroha
Chinese : K'u - Tou

Fresh ginger, dry ginger powder, oleoresin and oil are used in food processing. It is indispensable in the manufacture of ginger bread, confectionary, ginger ale, curry powders, certain curried meats, table sauces, in pickling and in the manufacture of certain cordials, ginger cocktail, carbonate drinks, liquors etc. In medicine, it is used as carminative and stimulant. It has wider applications in indigenous medicines. The ginger oil is used as food flavourant in soft drinks.

Name in international languages

Spanish : Jengibre
French : Gingembre
German : Ingwer
Swedish : Ingefara
Arabic : Zanjabil
Dutch : Gember
Italian : Zenzero
Portuguese : Gengibre
Russian : Imbir
Japanese : Shoga
Chinese : Chiang

Horse Radish
Horse Raddish is a native of the marshy districts of Eastern Europe, Southern Russia and Eastern Ukraine but has become naturalized in North America and New Zealand. In India it is found growing to a small extent in gardens in North India and hill stations of South India. Horse Raddish is a stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic, and digestive. It is used in the treatment for general debility, arthritis, gout, respirative infections, urinary infections and fevers. Horse Raddish is used as an appetizing spice. The high Vitamin ‘C’ content present in it is credited with digestive and anti-scorbutic properties. Leaves are used in salads and sandwiches. Grated roots when mixed with vinegar and salt is an appetizing spice and a pungent condiment to enhance the flavour of boiled or roasted beef. Other products in use are horse raddish cream, sauce, or relish. Horse raddish is available in dehydrated form also.

In medicine, it is used against stomach disorders, rheumatism, in ointments for headaches, in cough drops, inhalations etc. The oil and dried plants are antiseptic, carminative, refrigerant, stimulant and diuretic. Mint is used for flavouring meat, fish, sauces, soups, stews, vinegar, tea, tobacco and cordials. The mint oil is used for the production of natural menthol, dementhalised oil is for flavouring mouth washes, tooth paste and pharmaceutical preparations.

Hotel Taj Krishna

Location: (Hyderabad) 7 kms airport & rail station, 5 kms Downtown
Discription: 265 rooms
How to Reach: The Taj Krishna, Road No. 1, Banjara Hills. Hyderabad

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Ramada Hotel Manohar

Location: (Hyderabad) 7 kms airport & rail station, 5 kms Downtown
Discription: 265 rooms
How to Reach: The Taj Krishna, Road No. 1, Banjara Hills. Hyderabad

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